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Qiyam Ramadan Berjemaah Suatu Bid'ah Hasanah?


Benarkah bahawa Umar رضي الله عنه‎ telah melakukan bid'ah hasanah, yakni mengumpulkan orang untuk solat terawih berjamaah dengan satu imam yang tidak pernah dilakukan oleh Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم‎  sebagaimana ditulis di dalam Majalah Inabah dan kertas kerja MHDS?

("Pegangan Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah" oleh Ghouse Khan, Majalah Inabah No.23, Terbitan Masjid Khadijah, Singapura)

("Hukum Bid'ah & Huraiannya" oleh TM Fouzy, Terbitan MHDS)

Abdur Rahman bin ‘Abdin Al-Qaariy رضي الله عنه‎ telah meriwayatkan :
“Saya menemani Umar bin Al-Khatthab untuk pergi ke masjid, pada suatu malam Ramadhan, maka kami dapati manusia berkelompok dan berpecah-belah. Ada orang sholat sendirian, ada pula yang diikuti jamaah kecil, maka Umar pun berkata : 
"Demi Allah, kalau aku satukan mereka dengan seorang imam tentunya ia lebih elok." 
Kemudian beliau melakukannya dengan melantik Ubaiy bin Ka’ab sebagai imam mereka. Pada suatu malam lainnya aku keluar lagi bersamanya (Umar), sedang manusia melakukan sholat mengikuti imam mereka, maka berkatalah Umar : 
"Alangkah baiknya bid’ah (perkara baru) ini dan mereka yang tidur sekarang ini, (sebenarnya) melakukan yang lebih utama dari mereka yang sedang sholat (kerana inginkan saat-saat terakhir malam)."

Sedang manusia waktu itu kebanyakkannya mendirikan sholat pada awal malam.

[Diriwayatkan oleh Imam Al-Bukhaariy dan lainnya رحمه الله.]


1) Qiyam Ramadan Berjemaah Adalah Sunnah Rasulullah

عَنْ أَبِي ذَرٍّ ، قَالَ : صُمْنَا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ رَمَضَانَ ، فَلَمْ يَقُمْ بِنَا شَيْئًا مِنْهُ حَتَّى بَقِيَ سَبْعُ لَيَالٍ ، فَقَامَ بِنَا لَيْلَةَ السَّابِعَةِ حَتَّى مَضَى نَحْوٌ مِنْ ثُلُثِ اللَّيْلِ ، ثُمَّ كَانَتِ اللَّيْلَةُ السَّادِسَةُ الَّتِي تَلِيهَا ، فَلَمْ يَقُمْهَا حَتَّى كَانَتِ الْخَامِسَةُ الَّتِي تَلِيهَا ، ثُمَّ قَامَ بِنَا حَتَّى مَضَى نَحْوٌ مِنْ شَطْرِ اللَّيْلِ ، فَقُلْتُ : يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، لَوْ نَفَّلْتَنَا بَقِيَّةَ لَيْلَتِنَا هَذِهِ ؟ فَقَالَ : " إِنَّهُ مَنْ قَامَ مَعَ الْإِمَامِ حَتَّى يَنْصَرِفَ ، فَإِنَّهُ يَعْدِلُ قِيَامَ لَيْلَةٍ " ، ثُمَّ كَانَتِ الرَّابِعَةُ الَّتِي تَلِيهَا ، فَلَمْ يَقُمْهَا حَتَّى كَانَتِ الثَّالِثَةُ الَّتِي تَلِيهَا ، قَالَ : فَجَمَعَ نِسَاءَهُ وَأَهْلَهُ وَاجْتَمَعَ النَّاسُ ، قَالَ : فَقَامَ بِنَا حَتَّى خَشِينَا أَنْ يَفُوتَنَا الْفَلَاحُ ، قِيلَ : وَمَا الْفَلَاحُ ؟ ، قَالَ : السُّحُورُ قَالَ : ثُمَّ لَمْ يَقُمْ بِنَا شَيْئًا مِنْ بَقِيَّةِ الشَّهْرِ

Abu Dzar رضي الله عنه‎ telah meriwayatkan :
Kami telah berpuasa bersama Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ pada bulan Ramadhan, maka Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ tidak mengimamkan qiyam walau sehari pun sepanjang bulan tersebut sehinggalah hanya tinggal 7 hari (berpuasa), barulah Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ mengimamkan kami secara berjemaah sehingga berlalu sepertiga malam. 
Adapun pada hari ke 6 (tinggal 6 hari berpuasa), maka Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ tidak mengimamkan qiyam. Tapi pada hari ke 5 (tinggal 5 hari sahaja) baginda menjadi imam kami sehingga berlalu separuh malam. Maka aku pun berkata kepada baginda : 
"Wahai Rasulallah, alangkah baiknya anda mengimamkan kami lagi pada malam ini?"  
Maka baginda menjawab:
"Sesungguhnya sesiapa yang sholat bersama Imam sehingga Imam itu selesai sholat, maka dikirakan baginya sebagai orang yang telah menghidupkan sepanjang malam."  
Pada hari ke-4 (tinggal 4 hari lagi) baginda صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ tidak berjemaah bersama kami. 
Tetapi pada hari ke-3 (tinggal 3 hari sahaja lagi yakni malam 27 Ramadhan) Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ mengumpulkan isteri-isteri dan ahli keluarga baginda صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ serta para Sahabat yang ramai lalu Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ berjemaah bersama kami sehingga kami khuatir tidak sempat bersahur....”
[Hadith shohih yang diriwayatkan oleh Ash-haabus Sunan; Imam-imam Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidzi, An-Nasaa-i dan Ibnu Maajah dan lainnya رحمه الله].


2) Mengapakah Nabi meninggalkan perlaksanaan Qiyam Ramadan secara berjemaah?


Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ meninggalkan Qiyam berjemaah (pada bulan Ramadhan), kerana khuatir ia (qiyam berjemaah), akan difardhukan ke atas umatnya, yang kelak tidak mampu dilaksanakan oleh umat baginda, sebagaimana yang diriwayatkan dari ‘Aaisyah رضي الله عنها di dalam Shohih Al-Bukhaariy dan Shohih Muslim.

Diriwayatkan daripada 'Aaisyah رضي الله عنها katanya:
Pada suatu malam Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ sembahyang di masjid. Ada beberapa orang yang turut sembahyang bersama baginda, kemudian datang satu Qabilah juga turut sembahyang bersama baginda. Bilangan orang yang sembahyang bersama baginda menjadi semakin bertambah. 
Pada malam ketiga atau keempat selepas itu orang ramai berkumpul menunggu baginda tetapi Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ tidak keluar (sembahyang) bersama mereka. Apabila tiba waktu pagi baginda bersabda: 
"Sesungguhnya aku melihat apa yang telah kamu lakukan, maka apa yang menegah aku dari keluar ialah aku bimbang sekiranya perkara ini difardukan ke atas kamu." 
'Aaisyah berkata: Peristiwa itu berlaku pada bulan Ramadan .
[Diriwayatkan oleh Imam Al-Bukhaariy dan Muslim رحمه الله.]

Walau bagaimanapun, kekhuatiran ini lenyap setelah Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ wafat, kerana wahyu telah terputus dengan kewafatan baginda صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ dan Syari’at telah sempurna. Maka dengan itu, hukum melakukannya secara berjemaah diteruskan selepas kewafatan Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم‎. Sebab, alasan Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ meninggalkannya secara berjemaah ialah kekhuatiran ia difardhukan selama Syari’at belum disempurnakan.

Sebab itulah Sunnah ini dihidupkan semula oleh Sayidina Umar رضي الله عنه‎, semoga Allah meredhainya, pada zaman khilafahnya. Demikianlah yang terdapat di dalam Shohih Al-Bukhaariy dan kitab-kitab hadits lainnya.


3) Kesimpulan

Maksud bid'ah dari sudut lughowiyyah (bahasa) :
- Bid’ah adalah segala sesuatu yang baru yang belum ada contoh sebelumnya yang sepertinya.

Maksud bid'ah dari sudut syara' (hukum) :
- Bid’ah adalah setiap perkara baru yang diadakan di dalam urusan agama dan tidak pernah dibuat oleh Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم‎. [ Rujukan: Al-I’tishom, Al-Imam Asy-Syaathibiy ]

Maka, tentunya bid’ah yang dimaksudkan oleh Umar bin Al-Khatthab رضي الله عنه‎ adalah dari sudut bahasa, kerana perkara baru dari segi Syara’, yakni di dalam urusan agama, adalah bid’ah (dari sudut syara', segala bid'ah bersifat dholalah - sesat) dan tidak mungkin Sayidina Umar رضي الله عنه‎ melakukan bid’ah dholalah , sebab beliau hanya menghidupkan kembali Sunnah berjemaah yang telah dimulakan oleh Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم‎.

Wallahu Ta’aala a’lam.

Kajian oleh: Ustadz Abu Mazaaya



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Visits Made During Sha‘ban to the Grave of Prophet Hud

# Visits Made During Sha‘baan to the Grave of Prophet Hudس: الأخ من حضرموت يقول: تقام في شهر شعبان في بلدتنا حضرموت زي...

Posted by Islamiq Sg on Sunday, 24 May 2015
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Fasting the 2nd Half of Sha'baan

Question: Is it permissible to fast after halfway through Sha’baan? Because I heard that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade fasting after halfway through Sha’baan.

Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.

Proof of Prohibition of Fasting the 2nd Half of Sha'baan

Proof 1:

Abu Dawood (3237), al-Tirmidhi (738) and Ibn Naajah (1651) narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
“When Sha’baan is half over, do not fast.”
[Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 590]

This hadeeth indicates that it is not allowed to fast after halfway through Sha’baan, i.e., starting from the sixteenth day of the month.

Proofs of Permissibility of Fasting the 2nd Half of Sha'baan

Proof 1:

Al-Bukhaari (1914) and Muslim (1082) narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
“Do not anticipate Ramadaan by fasting one or two days before it begins, but if a man habitually fasts, then let him fast.
This indicates that fasting after halfway through Sha’baan is permissible for someone who has the habit of fasting, such as a man who regularly fasts on Mondays and Thursdays, or who fasts alternate days, and the like.

Proof 2:

Al-Bukhaari (1970) and Muslim (1156) narrated that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said:
“The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast all of Sha’baan, he used to fast Sha’baan except a few days.” 
[This version was narrated by Muslim]

Al-Nawawi said:
In the words, “He used to fast all of Sha’baan, he used to fast Sha’baan except a few days” the second phrase explains the first, and indicates that the word “all” means “most of”.
This hadeeth indicates that it is permissible to fast after halfway through Sha’baan, but only for those who are continuing after fasting before halfway through the month.

Conclusion:

The Shaafa’is (scholars of the madhab of Imam Shaafi'ie) followed all of these ahaadeeth and said:

It is not permissible (scholars differ on the ruling of makrooh or haraam) to fast after halfway through Sha’baan except for those who have a habitual pattern of fasting, or who are continuing after fasting before halfway through the month.

And Allaah knows best.


Adapted From: "The prohibition on fasting in the second half of Sha’baan" by Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid (http://www.islamqa.info)
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Nisfu Sha'baan - Imam Ibn Rajab

Many defenders of the practice of Nisfu Sha'baan will quote Imam Ibn Rajab as evidence of such practice by past scholars.



al-Haafiz Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali rahimahullah was born in Baghdad in 736H. He studied in Egypt and Damascus where he settled down until he died. He was a devoted student of Hadeeth and was one of the most prominent students of Ibn al-Qayyim rahimahullah and al-Haafiz al-Iraqi rahimahullah.

The following extract accompanied by the actual scan from the book of Ibn Rajab rahimahullah, Lata'if al-Ma`arif fi ma li Mawasim al-`Am min al-Waza'if, will show that using quotes from the great Imam as evidence to support the celebration of Nisfu Sha'baan is either ignorance or extracting selectively to mislead others.

_________________________________

Among the innovations that have been invented by some people is celebrating the middle of Sha'baan (Laylat al-Nusf min Sha'baan), and singling out that day for fasting. There is no evidence (daleel) for that which can be regarded as reliable. Some da'eef (weak) ahaadeeth have been narrated concerning its virtues, but we cannot regard them as reliable. The reports which have been narrated concerning the virtues of prayer on this occasion are all mawdoo' (fabricated), as has been pointed out by many of the scholars. We will quote some of their comments below, insha Allaah.

Some reports have also been narrated on this matter from some of the salaf in Syria, and others. What the majority of scholars say is that celebrating this occasion is an innovation, and that the ahaadeeth concerning the virtues of this occasion are all da'eef (weak), and some of them are mawdoo' (fabricated). Among those who pointed this out was al-Haafiz Ibn Rajab, in his book Lataa'if al-Ma'aarif, and others. The da'eef ahaadeeth concerning acts of worship can only be acted upon in the case of acts of worship which are proven by saheeh evidence. There is no saheeh basis for celebrating the middle of Sha'baan, so we cannot follow the da'eef ahaadeeth either. This important principle was mentioned by Imaam Abu'l-'Abbaas Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him).


Al-Haafiz Ibn Rajab (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his book Lataa'if al-Ma'aarif concerning this matter after previously discussing it:

"Laylat al-Nusf min Sha'baan (the middle of Sha'baan) was venerated by the Taabi'een among the people of al-Shaam, such as Khaalid ibn Mi'daan, Makhool, Luqmaan ibn 'Aamir and others, who used to strive in worship on this night. The people took the idea of the virtue of this night and of venerating it from them. It was said that they heard of Israa'eeli reports (reports from Jewish sources) concerning that. Most of the scholars of the Hijaaz denounced that, including 'Ataa' and Ibn Abi Maleekah. 'Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Zayd ibn Aslam narrated that view from the fuqahaa' of Madeenah, and this was the view of the companions of Maalik and others. They said: this is all innovation. 
No comment from Imaam Ahmad concerning Laylat al-Nusf min Sha'baan is known of. Concerning spending the night of the middle of Sha'baan in prayer, there is no sound report from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or from his companions."

This is what was said by Al-Haafiz Ibn Rajab (may Allaah be pleased with him). He clearly states that there is no sound report from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or from his companions (may Allaah be pleased with them) about Laylat al-Nusf min Sha'baan (the middle of Sha'baan).

Extracted from from Majmoo' Fataawa Samaahat al-Shaykh 'Abd al-'Azeez ibn Baaz, 2/882

Scan from Ibn Rajab's Lata'if al-Ma`arif fi ma li Mawasim al-`Am min al-Waza'if:








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