Islamiq.sg

AQD038E: al-'Uluw - Refutation of False Claims: “We do not ascribe to Allah a place" (Part 2)


Refutation of False Claims: “we do not ascribe to Allah a place; above the sky or ‘Arash/Throne as we glorify Him with utmost glorification”

Continued from AQD037E: al-'Uluw - Refutation of False Claims: “We do not ascribe to Allah a place" (Part 1)


D. Following the Sacred Texts and Pious Predecessors’ Belief versus Philosophical Claim: “We do not ascribe to Allah a place”

1. The Refutation to the claim that “We glorify Allah with the utmost glorification and so we do not fix a location or place for Him, because by saying that (believing that Allah is at so and so place, the Sky/Throne for eg), we are saying that Allah is in need of a place just like His creations and a place itself is a creation of Allah”.

We say in response to this: Our Pious Predecessors taught us not to make twisted interpretation but to accept Allah’s words and His Messenger’s explanation as well as the understanding of the Companions.

Let us ask ourselves:
i. Do we know Allah better than He, the Supreme Himself? If a person’s answer is “yes”, then he is saying that he knows more than Allah. Only a non-believer a heretic would say so. A true muslim would reply: Of course no. So a believer believes: Allah knows best, he doesn’t know anything except what Allah permits him to know. When it is matter with regards to the Divine Being/Self of Allah, we do not know except what He informs us of His Majestic Being. So let us leave to Allah what He explains of Himself.  
ii. Can we reject Allah’s words and His explanation? The answer of a true believer is “no”. Even if a single word of the Quran is to be rejected by a person claiming himself a muslim, he will be an apostate by doing so. Therefore we are to accept Allah’s words and His explanation with regards to His Being. 
iii. Can we use our mental faculty or by philosophical means to determine this and that of His Being when at the very first instance we know nothing of the unseen, we know not what is iman, the people of the past, the rulings in Islam (5 times prayer etc), the Angels, the Devil, Heaven and Hell, rewards and sins, except through His Revelations and His Messengers. Hence, we should not use our mental faculty to ponder and discuss these matters, instead we should just follow and in fact it is obligatory upon us to just follow Revelation and His Messenger’s explanation. 
With all these 3 points, by right, we are in consensus that we should only rely to Revelation (wahyu/ Allah’s Inspiration) whether the Quran or the Sunnah in this matter of “Where is Allah?”, since He knows best, we know nothing about Him except what He revealed to us in His Revelation and we cannot use our limited mental faculty to address this issue.
Thus, in the verses of the Quran (as in paragraph “A” of this article) Allah says:
“I rose over My Throne, above the Skies, I am the Most High, I am above my servants, my creations, the Angels will rise to the Skies”. 
The Messenger of Allah also said the same:
“Our Lord Allah is in the Skies (above them), I was made to ascend the skies to meet Him on the Night of Mi‘raj, I saw the angels were competing with one another hurriedly to raise that supplication of yours to Allah, Our Lord Most High…”. 

Our pious predecessors were very learned and knowledgeable people, they accepted everything that Allah revealed and all that His Messenger explained. He is where He is, but that doesn't imply that He needs His Throne, or that He is sitting on His Throne or that He is within the Skies. They only believed according to His Words and His Messenger’s explanation. None of them interpreted that Allah is sitting or resting on His Throne, or in need of the Throne, He is Most Glorified from such attributes.

They were wise men who said:
Allah is where He is as He described, that is above the Seven Heavens, above the Skies, He rose over His Throne in a manner that suits His Majesty. He is not everywhere, nor He is nowhere or without a place. 

If one says:
He is nowhere, there is no place to be attributed to Him, He is not above His creations not within them, He has no place, “الله موجود بلا مكان” …
Then that person has committed a heresy, he blasphemously rejected the words of Allah and the explanation of the Messenger and none of the Pious Predecessors said that. He has disbelieved just like how those who say “Allah is everywhere” – the ruling of Imam Abu Haneefah as in “D” no: 3.


2. The problem with those people who rejected and disbelieved that “Allah is above the Skies and that He rose over the Throne in a manner that suits His Majesty” is that they do not study ‘Aqeedah from the correct sources and they use the wrong approach (i.e. philosophical means) to address this matter of aqeedah; “Where is Allah”, when we should have understood that “logically” matters of ‘Aqeedah “Where is Allah” “His Attributes” are not matters to be dealt with by means of Philosophy.

Islam does encourage the use of human faculty and to exercise it in matters of Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence), especially in matters pertaining to the use of Anology (Qiyas) but matters of ‘Aqeedah, the Unseen, there is no Ijtihad nor analogy, it is merely and purely based on Revelation (Quran and as-Sunnah) and the Interpretation of those who understood most, the Pious Predecessors only.

Allah the Most High says:
“there is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the One that hears and sees (all things).” [1]

This verse clearly states that there is nothing similar to Allah, so when there is nothing to be compared to Allah, none of His Divine Attributes is to be compared to the descriptions of His creations.

Among those who reject “Allah is above the Skies” they have a good intention, however, they fall to the very same calamity they try to flee from, that is, they meant to glorify and esteem Allah, such that they negate Him of having any similarity with His creations, but in the end, they negate all of Allah’s Attributes, defy Allah’s statements and by doing so, refuse to accept Allah’s Revelation, thus do not glorify and esteem Allah with the utmost and valid esteem and glorification.  They concern merely with the first part of this verse: “there is nothing whatever like unto Him,” but they “discard” the later part: “and He is the One that hears and sees (all things).” Allah hears and Allah sees, distinct from the manner His creations see and hear.

To some among this confused group, they take it with this misconception: “if we say Allah hears and sees, we are saying that Allah is similar to His creations because they also hear and see”. By the same token, they say: “If Allah is above the Throne, above the Skies, Allah is in need of a place, just like how His creations must be at a place” “a place, the Throne and the Skies are creations of Allah, it is inappropriate to say that!”

Let us ask this group:
“Can you accept that Allah does not hear nor does He see?” 
If their answer is: “yes” then they are attributing to Allah what is inappropriate to His Supreme Being, Allah  is Pure from such inappropriate attributes; “deaf and blind”. Only a heretic would attribute these to Allah . Everyone knows that “blindness and deafness are imperfections”.

If their reply is: “No”, then they do agree that Allah Hears and Sees. The issue here is only with regards to “the manner” of “how” Allah Hears and Sees and we have understood rather simply that we cannot discuss this matter, unless Allah informs us “how”. Believing that Allah Hears and Sees doesn't necessarily in anyway implies “similarity”.

If among His creations, we do know that a fish has eyes to see, a bird too, as well as us, human beings and yet to our knowledge, “the manner” or “how” a fish or a bird sees and the way we see is totally different. The same goes to the example that a cat can hear, a hen too can hear and human beings too can hear, but the ways of hearing are not the same. A cat can move it’s ears and direct them to the source of a sound. A hen listens without “earlobes” and we have earlobes but cannot move them like how a cat does.

Therefore, these are differences among creatures and Allah is the Most Perfect and nothing is similar to Him  and His Attributes are different from all His creations. Hence, believing that Allah Hears and Sees doesn't necessarily in anyway implies “similarity” with His creations since we can understand that there are differences among His Creations and thus surely His Attributes are Distinctively Different from them all.

Briefly, the words and meanings are the same but the Reality is different. The words “hears” and “sees” are the same and the meaning we can understand but the reality of how Allah Hears and Sees is unknown to us, yet we believe He Hears and Sees because He informed us in His Revelation that He Sees and He Hears.
Likewise, believing that Allah is above the Skies, He rose over His Throne, above all His creations, doesn't necessarily in anyway implies “similarity”.  

This confused group refusing to accept the belief that Allah is above the Skies, He rose over His Throne, finds it difficult to accept this because they “imagined” Allah to be like one of His creations. To the extent that (as we came to know) he would put himself as similar to Allah, he imagined Allah to be like him, when he said:
“If Allah is on His Throne, let me ask you, is the Throne bigger or Allah is Bigger than the Throne? 
Of course Allah is Bigger because we say Allahu Akbar (Allah is The Greatest)! If a person believes that The Throne is bigger than Allah, by believing so, he is a heretic! So if Allah is Bigger than The Throne, imagine like myself, I’m big and I sit on a small stool, what will happen? Surely I will topple over! So how can we accept that Allah is on His Throne? This is illogical, nonsense and unacceptable”

Laa hawla wa la quwwata illa billaah! As we can see from the quote that this person had the audacity to:
i. use his imagination to describe what one should not imagine
ii. use logic in this matter, where logic is inappropriate
iii. He made himself an example, resembling the Supreme Being Lord Most High, taking his body as Allah’s Being, a small stool as Allah’s Majestic Throne.

Translated By: Ustadz Abu Mazaaya
Source: Sifatu ‘Uluw al-‘Aliyi al-‘Afuw
__________________

[1] Al-Qur’an: asy-Syura: 42: 52 
Read On 0 comments

Islamic Liberalism in Southeast Asia


This article consists of excerpts from "Islamic Liberalism in Southeast Asia" by Muhamad Ali available on
Oxford Islamic Studies Online.

Islamic Liberalism in Southeast Asia

In Southeast Asia, Islamic liberalism refers to a religious philosophy that recognizes freedom in approaching Islam, primarily characterized by a rational interpretation in accordance with liberal philosophies and institutions. Charles Kurzman, whose work has been translated and is read by Muslim scholars and activists in Southeast Asia, uses “liberal Islam” to refer to the form of Islam that promotes such liberal themes as democracy, freedom of thought, social equality, and human progress. This liberal Islam has emerged in a response to “customary Islam,” which embraces the local customs, and to “revivalist Islam,” which seeks to renew the fundamentals of Islam in the modern world (Kurzman, pp. 5–13).

Since the 1970s, liberal Muslims in Southeast Asia have viewed themselves as part of a religious revival in the public sphere, as a substantive norm that is progressive, rational, critical, and inclusive, in opposition to what they view as a conservative, literal, exclusive, or political Islam. Thus, liberal Muslims or Muslim liberals promote such values as freedom, democracy, pluralism, justice, and peace although they interpret them in various different ways.

In Singapore, liberal Islam is defined in terms of the state’s construction of religious moderation and modern global economy. Some Singaporean activists seek to redefine Islam in terms of antiterrorism and liberal capitalist global economy, although they too are engaged in international liberal themes across national boundaries.

Liberal Muslims see themselves inspired by the universalized, rather than particular message of the Qurʾān and Prophet Muḥammad, and find various religions, philosophies, and histories relevant for reforming Islam and Muslims in the modern time. They quote such ḥadīths as the one saying ‘religion is reason, and there is no religion without reason,’ as well as the Qurʾān passages, such as “If one wishes he may believe, and if one wishes he may reject.” (Qurʾān 18:29). Reason serves not as the antithesis, but as a means of interpreting revelation. They regard liberal democracy, separation of religion and politics, freedom of thought and expression, religious freedom, gender equality, human progress, peace, as both universal and divine, in their diverse expressions. They trace their thought to the spirit of reform throughout Islamic history as well as the spirit of Enlightenment in Western history. For example, they emphasize the objectives of Law (maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah) formulated by medieval Shāfiʿī jurist Al-Shatibi (d. 1388), namely: protection of religion, soul, intellect, property, family, and honor, and interpret them in light of modern notions of religious freedom, freedom of thought, individual property rights, and other private and civil rights.

The rise of Islamic liberalism in Southeast Asia can be attributed to an increased degree of education among middle-class Muslims, to a more sophisticated communication technology and organization, and to political opportunities. Muslim liberals are therefore characterized by their eclecticism, employing a wide range of literature produced in the Middle East, Europe, the United States, Africa, as well as Asia, in seeking sources for reformist ideas. Indonesian liberal Muslims cite select medieval scholars from Al-Shatibi, Ibn Taimiyya, al-Ghazālī, Ibn Rushd, to Mohammed Arkoun, Muḥammad ʿĀbid al-Jābirī, Naṣr Ḥāmid Abū Zayd, Ḥasan Ḥanafī, Jamal al-Banna, Fazlur Rahman, Fatima Mernissi, Farid Esack, Khalid Aboe al-Fadl, and Abdullahi
Ahmed al-Naim, among contemporary scholars. Malaysian progressive thinkers, such as Chandra Mudzaffar, Anwar Ibrahim, Faris Noor, and Zainah Anwar, and Singaporean writers make references to these scholars as well as Indonesian scholars such as Harun Nasution, who coined the phrase “rationalist Islam,” Abdurrahman Wahid who promotes “domestic Islam,” and Nurcholish Madjid, who says “Islam Yes, Islamic Party No” and promotes rethinking Islam in the context of nationhood and modernity. Nurcholish Madjid (1939–2005) was well known for “secularization,” the process of making world affairs, such as politics and economy, worldly, not sacred. There has been an increased movement of liberal ideas and scholars across Southeast Asia and the globe.

For liberal Muslims, the gate of independent reasoning (ijtihād) should not be closed because of modern challenges, seeing the imitation of the tradition (taqlīd) as the cause of stagnation. In their view, conservative memories and cultures have placed women second to men, have viewed other religious communities as a threat or an enemy, and have triggered the idea of reviving an Islamic caliphate, an Islamic state, an Islamic politics, regarded as the orthodox-conservative mindset. Liberal Muslims find the urgent need to engage with both Western and Muslim scholarship in an intellectual war (ghaz al-fikr) often referred to by their conservative counterpart. The intellectual context has been primarily historical and global, but its varied manifestations are primarily national and local. Educationally, Islamic liberalism is born in a multicultural context. Liberal Muslims have diverse backgrounds, but many study at the traditional schools (pesantren), at the Islamic studies institutes (Institut Agama Islam Negeri, IAIN) and in various places: Egypt, India, the United States, Australia, Europe, and other Southeast Asian countries.

The Liberal Islam Network(Jaringan Islam Liberal, JIL) was founded in March 2001 as a response to what the founders saw as the rise of Islamic conservatism in the public sphere. They published articles and books, held talk-shows that were broadcast on radio and discussions via online and offline, and worked with local networks across the country to disseminate their progressive ideas. They saw political and conservative Islam as a threat to a “blessing to all humankind” - to Islam as well as to the state philosophy of Pancasila and to the constitution. They seek to develop an Islam that is nonliteral, substantive, contextual, distinguishing the Arabic and local customary laws from the fundamental message of Islam so that Islam may conform to national progress, democracy, and world peace.

Zainah Anwar, the cofounder of SIS (Sisters In Islam), resists a literal interpretation of the Qurʾān and a blind following of the jurisprudence interpreted predominantly by male authority. Zainah Anwar says all that the sharīʿah has produced throughout history is a human understanding of God’s law, not God’s law itself; therefore it is subject to change given the context of changing times and circumstances.

The emphasis upon public ethics and civic values rather than religious ritual and symbols, a characteristic of Islamic liberalism, can also be found in the thought of Chandra Muzaffar, who is involved in the International Movement for Just World.

Islamic liberalism has often been linked to interfaith discourse and movements. Religious pluralism has become one of the key issues that both advocates and critics address. In Indonesia, Muhammad Syafiʾi Anwar, director of the International Center for Islam and Pluralism (ICIP), defines pluralism as respecting the faiths of others. He says, “I believe that Islam is the true religion, but others say the same about their religions.” (quoted in Munawar-Rachman, p. 218). Within the diverse faiths, liberal Muslims argue, there are commonalities and common platform, namely humanism.

The Reading Group Singapore  may be categorized as part of progressive, liberal Islam, although the Council of Islamic Religion in Singapore (Majelis Ugama Islam Singapore, MUIS), embracing moderation and progress, envisions “a community of excellence that is religiously profound and socially progressive.” Being progressive in practicing Islam means working beyond ritualism, riding the modernization wave, appreciating Islamic and other civilizations, developing good citizenship in a multireligious society and secular state, and being inclusive and pluralist without contradicting Islamic fundamentals. The Reading Group, engaged with such scholars as Fazlur Rahman, Asghar Ali Engineer, Khaled Abou el-Fadl, Nurcholish Madjid, demonstrates a sociocultural critique of religious bigotry, violence, and terrorism, as well as consumerism and commodification prevalent among the Singaporeans. They see themselves as a minority in a predominantly Chinese society and the secular state, and stress the value of religious freedom and the rights of minorities, tolerance, and peace. They define Islam in substantive, rather than legalistic terms, and promote a democratic Islam. One of the writers emphasizes Islamic norms of compassion and peace. He says that many Singaporeans are proud of their degree of religious freedom. The citizens are free to observe their religious beliefs and practices so long as they do not insult other religious communities.

One of the activists, Mohamed Imran Mohamed Taib, says, “I am essentially a pluralist Muslim. By this, I mean I accept the inherent and necessary diversity - not only across various faith systems or religions, but more importantly, within Islam itself.”. He recognizes no single formulation on pluralism, but he is inclined toward what he regards as the “liberal” stand of Islam. For him, an interfaith engagement is sanctioned by the Qurʾān, embracing human dignity, mutual learning, and competition in goodness, and by the examples of Prophet Muḥammad, including the one that says the religion most loved by God is the upright and tolerant one (al-hanafiya al-samha). Thus, a peace-loving and rational Muslim will interpret Islam as a peace-loving and rational religion whereas an intolerant and parochial Muslim will interpret Islam in an intolerant and parochial manner.

____________

Download the reference document here.
Read On 0 comments

Jawapan yang lumayan keatas orang yang mendakwa siapa yang menamakan Ibnu Taimiah sebagai Syaikul Islam adalah kafir

Kajian ringkas ini dicantumkan dari tulisan2 seorang ustaz Singapura, semoga Allah merahmatinya, sebagai bantahan terhadap seorang ustaz yang telah mengkafirkan Sheikul Islam Ibnu Taymiyah dan mengkafirkan sesiapa yang menamakan beliau sebagai "Sheikhul Islam" - https://www.facebook.com/ghuroba.trading


"Jawapan yang lumayan keatas orang yang mendakwa siapa yang menamakan Ibnu Taimiah sebagai Syaikul Islam adalah kafir." Oleh al-Hafiz Ibnu Nasir al-Deen al-Dimasyqiy al-Syafieey [777-842H]

 الرد الوافر على من زعم أن من سمى ابن تيمية شيخ الإسلام كافرتأليف ابن ناصر الدين الدمشقي

Ringkasan Kitab :

Syaikh Ali Bin Muhammad al-Bukhari al-Hanafi datang ke Damsyiq tahun 843H dan beliau dapati orang2 disana mencintai dan menyanjung Ibnu Taimiah. Beliau kemudian, Allahul Musta'aan telah tegar menyerang ulama2 dizamannya yang menamakan Imam Ahmad ibn Taimiah sebagai ' Syaikhul Islam ', maka beliau telah mengucapkan kalimatnya yang lantang lagi zalim :
" إن من سمى ابن تيمية شيخ الإسلام فهو كافر " 
" Siapa yang menamakan Ibnu Taimiah sebagai Syaikhul Islam maka dia kafir. "

Maka bangun menghadapnya seorang kontemporari beliau , Muhammad bin Abi Bakar bin Nasir al-Deen al-Dimasyqi al-Syafieey dengan kitabnya ini. Beliau telah membahaskan perkara2 berikut :-

1) Apakah makna-makna kalimat Syaikhul Islam? Siapa yang layak dipanggil demikian? Siapa yang telah digelar Syaikhul Islam dikalangan ulama yang lalu?

2) Apa makna kufur? Bagaimana pentakfiran berlaku ? Dimana ia berlaku?

3) Siapa yang kafir dalam isu ini, jika memang ada orang yang kafir?

4) Kewajiban mengikut Sunnah,tidak mengutuk deisebabkan mazhab, tidak diputuskan seorang dari ahli tauhid sebagai ahli neraka, tidak boleh melaknat, hukum hakam jarah wa ta'deel, senarai tingkatan2 ulama disiplin ini.

5) Koleksi nama2 ulama yang ramai yang telah menggelar Ibnu Taimiah sebagai ' Syaikhul Islam ' dikalangan ulama yang hidup sezaman Ibnu Taimiah, atau yang datang selepas beliau, disertakan sekali biografi setiap dari ulama2 tersebut, dan jumlah mereka dalam kitab ini adalah 87 orang alim. Disebutkan juga teman2 ulama tersebut, guru2 mereka, bapa2 mereka, murid2 mereka. Ditambah diakhir kitab, ulama2 yang menyokong dan memuji kitab ibnu Nasir al-Deen ini.

Pengarang telah meninggalkan jumlah ulama lain yang ramai, yang juga telah memuji ilmu, jihad, keimaman ibnu Taimiah, kerana beliau hanya menumpukan kepada ulama yang beliau jumpa ada menggelarkan Ibnu Taimiah sebagai ' Syaikhul Islam ', bukan lafaz2 pujian lain. Dan sebagai seorang Hafiz, beliau bersungguh2 menyalin kata2 mereka dari kitab2 tulisan mereka sendiri atau yang mereka ijazahkan, atau yang masyhur dinukilkan.

Beliau berkata dalam penutupnya :
" Dan kami telah tinggalkan golongan yang ramai yang menaskan keimaman beliau, kezuhudan, kewarakan, dan kesolehan beliau. Dan begitu juga kami tinggalkan dari menyebut orang2 yang telah memuji beliau ketika hayatnya, atau yang telah menangisi beliau dalam syair2 mereka setelah kewafatan beliau. "
\
Siapa yang akan gembira dengar kekufuran Ibnu Taimiyah?

Berkata : Imam Ahmad ibn Hajar al-Asqalani al-Syafiey

و من أعجب العجب أن هذا الرجل كان أعظم الناس قياما على أهل البدع من الروافض و الحلولية و الاتحادية, و تصانيفه في ذلك كثيرة شهيرة, و فتاويه فيهم لا تدخل تحت الحصر. فيا قرة أعينهم إذا سمعوا بكفره. و يا سرورهم إذا رأوا من يكفّر من لم يكفّره.

Antara sepelik2 perkara yang pelik, lelaki ini seorang yang paling banyak menentang ahli bid'ah dari kalangan puak Rafidah, Hululiyah, Ittihadiyah, kitab2 beliau dalam hal demikian banyak lagi masyhur sekali. Fatwa2 beliau tentang mereka tidak dapat dihitung. Maka alangkah sejuk mata mereka bila mendengar tentang kekufurannya, alangkah gembiranya bila melihat orang yang mengkafirkan sesiapa yang tidak mengkafirkannya.

فاواجب على من تلبس بالعلم و كان له عقل أن يتأمل كلام الرجل من تصانيفه المشتهرة, أو من ألسنة من يوثق به من أهل النقل, فيفرد من ذلك ما ينكَر فيحذر منه على قصد النصح. و يثني عليه بفضائله فيما أصاب من ذلك كدأب غيره من العلماء.

Maka wajib diatas seorang yang ada ilmu, ada akal, memerhatikan kata2 lelaki ini dari TULISAN2nya yang sangat masyhur,atau dari lidah2 orang2 yang dipercayai dari ahli riwayat, maka dia mengkhususkan apa yang diinkari darinya agar diwaspadakan orang lain dengan tujuan nasihat, serta memuji orangnya dengan kelebihan2 yang ada padanya terhadap apa yang beliau betul dari tulisan2nya seperti memang caranya ulama2 lain.

و لو لم يكن للشيخ تقي الدين من المناقب إلا تلميذه الشهير الشيخ شمس الدين ابن القيم الجوزية, صاحب التصانيف النافعة السائرة, التي انتفع بها الموافق و المخالف لكان غاية في الدلالة على عظم منزلته. فكيف و قد شهد له بالتقدم في العلوم, و التميز في المنطوق و المفهوم, أئمة عصره من الشافعية و غيرهم! فضلا عن الحنابلة.

Kalaulah Syaikh Taqiyuddin tiada apa2 keutamaan melainkan muridnya yang tersohor, iaitu Syaikh Syamsu al-Din Ibnul Qayyim al-Jauziyyah, pengarang kitab2 yang bermanfaat yang masyhur, yang dimanfaatkan oleh pihak yang pro dan kontra, tentu ia cukup menjadi sebesar bukti besar kedudukan beliau, apakah lagi telah menyaksikan kehebetan beliau dalam ilmu2 , keistimewaan dalam hal mantuq dan mafhum,imam2 zamannya dari ulama Syafieyah dan selain mereka, apakan lagi ulama2 Hanabilah.

فالذي يطلق عليه مع هذه الأشياء الكفر أو على من سماه شيخ الإسلام, لا يلتفت إليه, و لا يعول في هذا المقام عليه, بل يجب ردعه عن ذلك إلى أن يراجع الحق و يذعن للصواب.

Maka seorang yang mengucapkan akan kekufuran beliau atasnya sedangkan wujudnya hal2 ini, atau mengkafirkan orang yang menamakan beliau " Syaikhul Islam " , tidak ditoleh kepadanya, tidak dipegang dalam hal ini kepadanya, bahkan wajib MENGHUKUMNYA hingga dia kembali kepada al-haq dan menerima kebenaran. "

[ dari penyokongan Ibnu Hajar terhadap kitab ibnu Nasir al-Deen al-Dimasyqiy. ]
Read On 0 comments

Benarkah Syaikhul Islam Ibnu Taimiah menjadi Asy'ari dari tahun 707H hingga beliau wafat 728H?

Bantahan ringkas ini dicantumkan dari tulisan2 seorang ustaz Singapura, semoga Allah merahmatinya - https://www.facebook.com/ghuroba.trading 

1) Orang yang terdekat dengan Ibnu Taimiah seperti Hafiz Ibnu Katheer sikit tidak sebut kisah taubat itu dalam al-Bidayahnya. Ibnu katheer sebut panjang lebar kisah gurunya yang beliau kasihi hinggalah bagaimana beliau turut serta mandikan jenazahnya.

2) Hafiz Ibnul Qayyim mula jumpa belajar dengan Syaikhul Islam tahun 712H, ketika beliau masih berumur 21 thn. Ini berlaku lama selepas kisah ' taubat ' itu. Ibnul Qayyim telah bermulazamah dgn gurunya hingga wafat, 17 tahun lamanya. Siapa pernah baca kitab2 ibnul Qayyim seperti Ijtima' Juyusy al-Islamiyah, Qasidah Nuniyah tentu tahu berapa ' salafi 'nya beliau dan bagaimana beliau akui terpengaruhnya yang sangat besar dengan Ibnu Taimiah.

3) Hafiz Ibnu Abdil Hadi [705-744H] baru mula jumpa dan mulazamah dengan Ibnu Taimiah lama selepas tarikh 706 H, iaitu 5 tahun sebelum wafat Ibnu Taimiah. Beliau mempertahankan gurunya dalam menentang musuh beliau al-Subki dalam kitab al-Sarim -al-Manki.Beliau juga memiliki kitab ' al-Kalam a'la Masalah al-Istiwa a'la al-Arsy ', yang merupakan seperti ringkasan kitab 'al-Arsy ' seorang lagi gurunya, Imam Zahabi.

4) Hafiz Zahabi sampai ringkaskan kitab gurunya Minhaj Sunnah yang telah ditulis Ibn Taimiah lama selepas 707H. Ringkasan ini ditulis masa hayat ibnu Taimiah lagi tahun 720H. Siapa baca kitab ini tahu aqidah Ibnu Taimiah, aqidah Asya'ri ke akidah Salafi.


Mana dia kitab Ibn Taimiah yang mengandungi penyebaran aqidah Asya'ari?

Bahkan yang kita jumpa Ibnu Taimiah telah mengarang sejumlah besar kitab2 salaf dan rad terhadap Asya'irah post 707H...

1) Dar'u al-Ta'arudh bayna Naqli wal Aqli, kitab yang rad Ghazali dan Fakhrurazi dll

2) Minhaj Sunnah

3) al-Qaidah al-Marakisyiyyah

4) al-Rad a'la al-Mantiqiyyin

5) al-Nubuwwat, kitab yang rad aqidah Asyairah tentang kenabian terutama sekali al-Baqillani

6) al-Furqan baina Auliyau Rahman wa Auliya al-Syaiton

7) al-Jawab al-Sohih

8) al-Safadiyah

9) Syarh al-Asbahaniyah

10) Tafsir ayat2 Asykalat di hari2 akhir beliau dalam penjara

Apakah ini kitab2 berbau Asy'ari dari seorang yang kononya telah taubat jadi Asy'ari selama 20 tahun hingga mati?

Musuh ketat beliau, Taqiyyuddin al-Subki juga tidak sedikit menyebut kisah 'taubat' ini. Ini selepas berbakul2 cemuhan tentang 'kesesatannya' yang beliau lontarkan kepada beliau.Sedangkan kisah ini antara yang sangat berharga bagi musuh2 beliau.


Imam Zahabi Berkata Ibnu Taimiah Tidak Pernah Tarik Balik Kata2 & Tulisan2nya

Imam Zahabi, murid dan seorang yang juga antara terdekat dengan gurunya mengatakan Ibnu Taimiah tidak pernah tarik balik kata2 dan tulisan2nya walaupun dipenjarakan sampai beliau meninggal dunia tahun 728H...

Setelah menukilkan pujian Imam Abul Fath al-Ya'muri yang diakhirnya :
... برز في كل فن على أبناء جنسه, لم تر عبني مثله و لا رأت عينه مثل نفسه. 
" Beliau ( Ibnu Taimiah ) cemerlang dalam semua ilmu melebihi anak2 bangsanya, mataku belum melihat seorang sepertinya, tidak pula mata beliau pernah melihat seorang seperti dirinya sendiri." 
قلت: قد سجن غير مرة ليفتر عن خصومه ويقصر عن بسط لسانه وقلمه وهو لا يرجع ولا يلوي على ناصح إلى أن توفي معتقلا بقلعة دمشق.."  
" Aku ( Zahabi ) berkata : Beliau telah dipenjarakan banyak kali supaya beliau hentikan bicaranya terhadap penentang2nya, dan supaya beliau diam dari lidah dan penanya, tetapi beliau tidak kembali dan tidak berpaling kepada penasihat hinggalah beliau meninggal dunia dalam penjara Damsyiq..."

[ kata2 ini dari kitab al-Mu'jam al-Mukhtas bil Muhaddithin tahqiq Dr Md al-Habib ,m/s 22. ]

Read On 0 comments

AQD037E: al-'Uluw - Refutation of False Claims: “We do not ascribe to Allah a place"


Refutation of False Claims: “we do not ascribe to Allah a place; above the sky or ‘Arash/Throne as we glorify Him with utmost glorification” 

A. Refuting the Deviated Statement

Among Muslims, some of them would say:
“We glorify Allah with the utmost glorification and so we do not fix a location or place for Him, because by saying that (believing that Allah is at so and so place, the Sky/Throne for eg), we are saying that Allah is in need of a place just like His creations and a place itself is a creation of Allah. Therefore we say: He is everywhere, or He is Omnipresent or He exists without a place – الله في كل مكان ، الله موجود بلا مكان”
These are the refutations: 

Firstly - this false deviated statement: He is everywhere, or He is Omnipresent or He exists without a place – الله في كل مكان ، الله موجود بلا مكان”

In response, we say:

1. This statement or belief that “Allah is everywhere” or “Allah exists without a place” or “Allah is Omnipresent” refering to His Divine Being, do you have any verse of the al-Qur’an or as-Sunnah (the hadiets – authentic saying of Rasulullah), or any of the Pious Predecessors’ sayings to support it?

The truth is, you cannot find even one (unless you desperately quote from a scholar who came after 300H – when the influence of philosophy penetrated matters of ‘Aqeedah). What we have cited in this article of verses of the Quran, the pure Sunnah of the Messenger and sayings of our Pious Predecessors, in fact their consensus, proves that Allah is above His Creations, above the Seven Skies and He rose over His Throne.


B. Refuting the Deviated Interpretations of Quranic Verses

However, among the Muslims, those who are being infected by the philosophical “diseases”, stubbornly believe otherwise and they came out with the following argument to refute the belief that has been revealed by Allah and His Messenger as well as the belief of the pious and guided scholars in this matter.

They say: There are verses of the Quran that evidently state Allah is everywhere and He is with you wherever you are. For example:

  1. “for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein.”
  2. “He is with them when they plot by night, in words that He cannot approve..”
  3. “There is not a secret consultation between three, but He makes the fourth among them, nor between five but He makes the sixth, nor between fewer nor more, but He is with them, wheresoever they be:”
  4. “And He is with you wheresoever ye may be.”

They say: So these verses prove that Allah is everywhere.

That is their conclusion.

Our response:

- We, following the teachings of Allah, the Messenger and the Pious Predecessors, would like to know: “Are we to interpret the al-Quran by means of our own understanding? Base on our own interpretations? Is it permissible to take these verses literally and formulate a belief that “Allah is everywhere”? No!

- By right, we are to interpret the Quran and understand the Words of Allah by His Messenger’s interpretation and the understanding of the Companions and those who follow their path. We have brought all the evidences to proof the interpretation of the Messenger and the Pious Predecessors; points “B. from Authentic Narrations in the Traditions (Sunnah) of Rasulullah ”, “C. Ijma‘ (concensus) of the Scholars” and “D. From the sayings of our Pious Predecessors”.

We are safe when we believe in what they believed in and follow their path in this matter. All these verses refer to His Supreme Divine Knowledge not His Being/Self (Dzat) because His Being is above His Creations, as Imam Sufyan ats-Tsauriy explained:
And He is with you (by His Knowledge) wheresoever you may be.. He replied: “His Knowledge”  (see: “D” point no: 8) 
And the conclusion of Imam al-Hafiz al-Lalaka-i :
These verses evidently show that He  is above the sky yet His Knowledge encompasses every place on Earth and in the Sky.

Let us be clear with another important point. Actually, Allah has made it clear to us, those verses are relating to His Knowledge and not His Supreme Divine Being/Self.

Examine the following:

1) Verse 1: 
“It was We Who created man, and We know what dark suggestions his soul makes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein. Behold, two (guardian angels) appointed to learn (his doings) learn (and note them), one sitting on the right and one on the left. Not a word does he utter but there is a sentinel by him, ready (to note it).”  
So in this verse, even if we do not get the interpretation from as-Sunnah and others, the very verse taught us, it is with regards to the Knowledge of Allah, not His Being that is nearer to him than (his) jugular vein.


2) Verse 2:
“They may hide (their crimes) from men, but they cannot hide (them) from Allah, seeing that He is with them when they plot by night, in words that He cannot approve; and Allah ever encompasses what they do.”  
His Knowledge was with them and not that His Divine Being was with them that night.


3) Verse 3:
“Have you not seen that Allah knows whatever is in the heavens and on whatsoever is on the earth? There is no Najwa (a secret consel) of three, but He is their fourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, nor of less than that or more, but He is with them, wheresoever they may be: and afterwards on the Day of Resurrection He will inform them the truth of what they did. Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of everything”.  

4) Verse 4:
“He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, and then rose over the Throne, He knows what goes into the earth and what comes forth out from it, what descends from heaven and what ascends thereto. And He is with you wheresoever you may be. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do”.  
Imam Sufyan ats-Tsauriy clarified this as mentioned. Apart from that, this verse clarified with utmost clarity “then rose over the Throne, He knows” that He is above the Throne, His Divine Self but His Knowledge, not His Supreme Being, is with everything.


C. Verses from the Quran that Clarifies Allah rose over the Throne or the Skies and His Knowledge is with us

In fact, in many verses, Allah clarifies that He rose over the Throne or the Skies, and at the same time, He reminds us that His Knowledge is with us. Examples are these verses:
“He it is Who created for you all that is on earth; then He rose over towards  the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the All-Knower of everything.”
         
“(Allah) the Most Gracious rose over the Mighty Throne…. And if you speak  (the invocation) aloud, then verily, He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden.”  

Therefore, it is very clear to us now that there is no contradiction in these verses and Allah  the Most Gracious, His Being/Self is above the Throne, above the Seven Skies, in a manner suits His Majesty. He is not everywhere but nothing escapes His Knowledge .

This idea that He is with His Divine Being  is everywhere with us, may cause a non-believer to assume that “the Muslims believe that God can be with us even while we are in the toilet” or assumes that “He is in everything that we see”. As we have understood, this is the belief of the Deviated Sect, the Jahmites, among those who claim themselves as part Muslim ummah. So, it is not permissible for us to say: “Allah is everywhere” or “Allah is Omni-present” or “Allah exists without a place or location” since:
i. No evidence from the texts of al-Quran and as-Sunnah or from the scholars’ statements to support them.  
ii. All the evidences of the Quran proof contrary to these statements. Instead, all of these texts proof that “Allah  is above the Skies, He  is on and above His Throne in a manner that suits His Majesty.  

Translated By: Ustadz Abu Mazaaya
Source: Sifatu ‘Uluw al-‘Aliyi al-‘Afuw

Read On 0 comments

AQD036E: al-'Uluw - Among the References from Great Scholars


Among the References (Books authored by great scholars) mentioning this Divine Attribute of Allah; “al-‘Uluw”:


1. Khalq Af‘al al-‘Ibad by al-Imam al-Bukhariy (d: 256H)

2. Mukhtasar as-Sawa‘iq- Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (d:751H)

3. Maqalat Islamiyin wa Ikhtilaf al-Musollin by Imam Abul Hasan al-Asy‘aree (260-324H)

4. Syarh Usul I'tiqad Ahlis Sunnah wal Jama‘ah by al-Hafiz al-Lalika-ie (418H)

5. Al-‘Uluw li al-‘Aliyy al-Ghaffar- by Imam al-Hafiz  adz-Dzahabee (d:748H)

6. Mukhtasar al-‘Uluw by al-Albaanee (the abridged version of adz-Dzahabee’s al-‘Uluw)

7. Itsbat Sifati al-‘Uluw by Imam Ibn Qudaamah (d:620H)

8. Al-Asma' Wa as-Sifat by al-Baihaqee (d:458H)

9. Al-Arba‘een fi Sifati Rabbil ‘Alamien by al-Hafiz adz-Dzahabee (d: 748H)

10. Ijtima' Juyusy Islamiyyah ‘ala Ghazwatil Mu‘attilah wal Jahmiyyah by Ibnul Qayyim al-Jawziyyah

11. Ar-Radd ‘alal Jahmiyyah - al-Hafiz Ibnu Mandah (d:395H)

12. Kitab asy-Syarie‘ah- Imam al-Ajurree

13. Fath Rabbil Bariyyah – Syeikh Salih ‘Utsaimeen

14. Syarh ‘Aqeedat al-Wasitiyah by Syeikh Salih ‘Utsaimeen


Translated By: Ustadz Abu Mazaaya
Source: Sifatu ‘Uluw al-‘Aliyi al-‘Afuw
Read On 0 comments

AQD025E: al-'Uluw - Concensus of the Scholars


Since we have understood that He is as He the Most High described Himself: “There is nothing like unto Him – ليس كمثله شيء” (al-Qur’an: asy-Syura: 42:11) with regards to His Divine Attributes or in simple words: Whatever description we use to describe Him, The Exalted, is in reality not the same to the descriptions of His creations except by the meaning of the words literally. His Attributes are Most Perfect and Distinct.

Ijma‘ (concensus) of the Scholars:

1. Imam al-Auza‘ie rahimahullah (died: 157H) said:
We and the Successors (at-Tabi‘un), all of us say that Allah is above His Throne...

2. Imam Ibn Katsier rahimahullah (died: 774H) ) in his interpretation of verse 3 Surah al-An‘am, said:

Scholars have differed in their opinions in understanding this verse {And He is Allah in the heavens and on earth. He knows what you hide, and what you reveal, and He knows the (recompense) which you earn (by your deeds)} after they’ve all agreed unanimously, rejecting the view of the Jahomites – the first sect to say that “Allah is everywhere – Allah fie kulli makan”[1]

From the sayings of our Pious Predecessors:


1. ‘Abdullah bin Mas‘ud radhiyallahu'anhu , (as-Sahabie) Companion of Rasulullah shallallahu 'alayhi wasallam said:
“إرحم من في الأرض يرحمك من في السماء – Be kind to those on earth and the One (Allah) in the sky will be Merciful to you” [2]

2. ‘Abdullah ibn Mubarak rahimahullah [3]:
Imam ‘AbdulLah bin Ahmad quoted that ‘Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak said: “....I bear witness that You are above Your Throne above the seven heavens. And this is not as the enemies of Allah say, the heretics.” [4]
“We know that our Lord is above the seven heavens over the Throne, and we do not say as the Jahmiyyah say that he is here, pointing with his hand to the earth.” [5]

“We do not say (believe) like what the Jahomites say “that Allah is on this Earth”, instead (we say) He (Allah) rose over His Throne.” “How can we know our God (Allah)?” He replied: “He is above the Heavens, He rose over His Throne.” [6]

3. Abu Haniefah rahimahullah (80-150H)
Abu Haniefah [7], when asked of his opinion of the one who says, I do not know whether Allah is above the heavens or on the earth, he responded by saying: “He has disbelieved, because Allah says: The Most Merciful rose above the Throne [8], and His Throne is above His seven heavens.” 
He was then asked, what if he said: “Allah is above His Throne but he does not know whether the Throne is in the heavens or on the earth?” Abu Haniefah replied: “He has disbelieved, because he has denied that He is above the heavens and whosoever denied that He is above the heavens has disbelieved.” [9]

4. Imam Mālik rahimahullah (93-179H):
Imam Mālik [10] said: Allah is Above the heaven, and His knowledge is in every place, nothing is hidden from Him.” [11]
5. Imam asy-Syāfi‘ie rahimahullah (150-204H):

Al-Imam Adz-Dzahabie in his treatise “al-‘Uluw” said: Syeikhul Islam Abul Hasan al-Hakkari and al-Hafiz Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisiy, both of them narrated with Isnad (chain of narrators) both ended at Abu Tsaur and Abu Syu‘aib (disciples of asy-Syafi‘ie – the former in Iraq and the latter in Egypt) and both of them narrated that al-Imam asy-Syafi‘ie [12], the Defender of al-Hadiets, may Allah bless him with His Mercy, said:

“The belief in accordance to the Sunnah that I myself steadfast to and I witnessed those whom I met (among the Great Scholars) like Sufyan and Malik (both his teachers; the former in Mecca and the latter in Medina) and many others, is to testify that There is no God worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is His messenger and that Allah is on His throne, above the skies, He makes His Divine Being closer to His servants in the manner He wishes and He Descends to the world’s sky in the way He pleases…then he mentioned a few other principles of Aqiedah.” [13]


 
6. Wahab bin Jareer rahimahullah (died: 206H):
He said: “The Jahomites (al-Jahmiyah sect) are innovators, to them Allah does not Istiwa’ on (rose over) His Throne.” [14]

7. Imam Muhammad bin Yusuf rahimahullah [15]:
 He said: “Whoever says that Allah is not above His Throne, he is a Kafir.” [16]

8. Ibn Ma‘dan said:
I asked Sufyan ats-Tsauriy rahimahullah [17] with regards to the verse: {And He is with you (by His Knowledge) wheresoever you may be...} [18]
He replied: “His Knowledge” [19]

9. Imam al-Hafiz al-Lalaka-i rahimahullah (died: 418H):


He made this conclusion, after he listed a number of verses [20] as evidences for al-‘Uluw as a Divine Attribute of Allah:
“These verses evidently show that He is above the sky yet His Knowledge encompasses every place on Earth and in the Sky. This is narrated from the Companions; from‘Umar, Ibn Mas‘ud, Ibn ‘Abbas and Ummu Salamah .
Likewise from the Successors (at-Tabi‘un – the dicsiples of the Companions); Rabie‘ah bin ‘Abdir Rahman, Sulayman at-Taymee, Muqatil bin Haiyan and among the Scholars of Fiqh who held the same belief; Malik bin Anas, Sufyan ats-Tsauriy and Ahmad bin Hambal.”[21]

There are many others, but what has been presented is sufficient, Insyaa Allah.

Translated By: Ustadz Abu Mazaaya
Source: Sifatu ‘Uluw al-‘Aliyi al-‘Afuw

------------------------------

[1] Syarh Usul I‘tiqad Ahlis Sunnah wal Jama’ah: 3/438 by al-Imam al-Lalaka-i (d: 418H) and it is also a Sahih Hadiets from the sayings of Rasulullah as narrated by at-Tabaraniy (from Jarier’s narration), and at-Tabaraniy also narrated, as well as al-Hakim from ‘Abdullah bin Mas‘ud – Sahih al-Jami‘: 896.[3] ‘Abdullah bin al-Mubarak bin Wadih al-Hanzali, at-Tamiemiy al-Marwazi, Mawla Bani Hanzalah al-Marwazi, Tabi‘ie tsiqah (a trustworthy narrator among the Successors), a great scholar of fiqh, mujahid – a warrior, died 181H – as-Siyar:1299. 4]

[2] Tafsier al-Qur’an al-‘Aziem (Tafsier Ibn Katsier): surah al-An‘am verse 3. The same goes to the philosophical principle: “Allah Maujoud bi la makan – Allah is present without a place” which can also mean “Allah is nowhere” a statement of blasphemy since it is not supported with any evidences from the Quran nor the Sunnah not even from the sayings of the Pious Predecessors as we clearly see in tis article.

[3] “as-Sunnah” of Imam ‘AbdulLah bin Ahmad with tahqeeq of al-Qahtaanie

[4] Ibid.

[5] Al-Arba‘ien fi as-Sifat; Khalq Af‘al al-‘Ibad authored by al-Imam Bukhariy (194-256H)

[6] Abu Haniefah, an-Nu‘man bin Tsabit al-Koufi, known as the Founder of Madzhab Hanafi – the Hanafi School of Fiqh (80-150H).

[7]the verse in Surah Ta-ha: 20:5.

[8] al-Uluw of adz- Dzahabee, Syarh al-‘Aqeedah at-Tahawiyyah of ibn Abie al-‘Izz al-Hanafee

[9]Imam Darul Hijrah, Malik bin Anas bin Malik bin Abi ‘Amir al-Asbahi al-Madani, known as the founder of Maliki Madzhab (93-179H)

[10] Al-Albanee said in his notes to Mukhtasar (no. 130), reported by ‘Abdullah in as-Sunnah (pg. 5), and likewise Abu Dawood in Masa-il (pg. 263) and it s sanad is saheeh and he includes a refutation of the lies that Kawtharee employs to try and discredit this isnad

[11] Imam the Defender and Preserver of as-Sunnah, Muhammad bin Idries, al-Muttalibi al-Qurasyi, asy-Syafi‘ie known as the founder of Madzhab Syafi‘ie, 150-204H.

[12] Narrated by Adz-Dzahabie (d:748H) in “Mukhtasar al-‘Uluw”: 176 and al-Imam Ibn al-Qayim in “Ijtima‘ al-Juyusy al-Islamiyah”: 94. Do refer to: Majmu‘ al-Fatawa: 4/181 and ‘Aun al-Ma‘bud: 13/41 and 47 too.

[13] Ibn Hazim, al-Azdiy al-Basriy, al-Imam Ahmad recommended others to narrate from him as he himself did in his Musnad,

[14] Khalq Af‘al al-‘Ibad authored by al-Imam Bukhariy (194-256H)


[15] bin Ma‘dan, a contemporary to ‘Abdullah bin al-Mubarak (d: 181H). Adz-Dzahabiy mentioned him in as-Siyar: 1372, and he is not ‘Abdullah bin Yusuf (d: 218H), the teacher of al-Bukhariy and among the narrators mentioned in Sahih al-Bukhariy.

[16] Khalq Af‘al al-‘Ibad: pg.15 authored by al-Imam Bukhariy (194-256H)

[17] Sufyan bin Sa‘ied bin Masruq bin Habieb… bin Milkan bin Tsaur (97H-161H). Among the most prominent scholars of his time.

[18] Al-Qur’an: al-Hadied: 57: 4

[19] Khalq Af‘al al-‘Ibad by al-Imam Bukhariy, Syarh Usul I‘tiqad Ahlis Sunnah wal Jama’ah: 3/445 by al-Imam al-Lalaka-i (d: 418H) and narrated by ‘Abdullah bin Ahmad in as-Sunnah: 72.

[20] Al-Qur’an: Fatir: 35:10, Al-Qur’an: al-Mulk: 67:16, Al-Qur’an: al-An‘am: 6:18

[21] Syarh Usul I‘tiqad Ahlis Sunnah wal Jama’ah: 3/429-430 by al-Imam al-Lalaka-i.
Read On 0 comments

AQD024E: al-'Uluw - From Authentic Narrations


As we have understood, from the teachings of Salafussolih, our pious predecessors, among them al-Qadi AbuYusuf (d: 182H), al-Hafiz Ibn Mandah (d: 395H), Ibn Battah al-‘Ukbariy (d: 387H) and others, at-Tawhied is classified into 3 categories; ar-Rububiyah, al-Uluhiyah and al-Asma’ wa as-Sifat. One of the Attributes (Sifat) of Allah is al-‘Uluw, meaning High, Exalted and Elevated above His creations.

From Authentic Narrations in the Traditions (Sunnah) of Rasulullah :

1. “al-‘Uluw”:

Rasulullah shallallahu 'alayhi wasallam said while doing Sujud, the Prostration in Salat:

“Glory be to Allah the Most High – سبحان ربي الأعلى” [Muslim: 772]


2. He is in the Heavens the Skies well above His Creations:

a) “ألا تأمنوني وأنا أمين من في السماء – Don’t you trust me when I am the trustworthy one to the One Who is in the Sky?” [al-Bukhariy: 4094 & Muslim: 1073]


b) The Hadits of Jariah
Jariah, the slave-girl, when the Messenger of Allah asked her: “Where is Allah?”
She replied: “In the Sky.”
Then Nabi shallallahu 'alayhi wasallam continued: “Who am I?”

She answered: “You are the Messenger of Allah.”
The Messenger of Allah did not correct her reply and continued, and eventually said: “Free her cause she is a true believer.” [Muslim: 537]
Based on this narration, asy-Syafi‘ie rahimahullah ruled out in his fatwa (fiqh ruling) of freeing a mukmin/believer slave as a eligible kaffarah (religious expiation), he said:
“When the slave is a true muslim, free him/her fully…I prefer if the slave is being tested by questioning him/her…as in the hadis of Mu‘awiyah bin al-Hakam: the Messenger of Allah asked her: Where is Allah?, she replied: In the Sky… set her free – و أحب إلي لو امتحنها...و ذكر حديث معاوية..فقال لها رسول الله: أين الله؟ قالت: في السماء..فأعتقها”. [Manaqib asy-Syafi ‘ie: 1/394, al-Umm: 266-267]

3. “above - فوق”:

- The hadits: among his supplications, Rasulullah said:
“You are the Most Prominent Exalted, and none is above You… – و أنت الظاهر فليس فوقك شيء” [Muslim: 2714]

4. “rose over – Istiwa’ His Throne or the Sky”

- “When Allah completed His creations, He rose over His Throne – لما فرغ الله من خلقه استوى على عرشه”  [Bukhariy, Muslim & Ahmad from Abu Hurairah - Sahih al-Jami' :5214]


5. “ascend – العروج”

- “The Angels take shifts in overseeing you, angels in the night and angels in daytime…then those who spent their night overseeing you will ascend and they will be asked by Him, though He knows best, better than them – يتعاقبون فيكم ملائكة بالليل وملائكة بالنهار......ثم يعرج الذين باتوا فيكم فيسألهم وهو أعلم بهم...” [Bukhariy: 530,6992, Muslim:632]

- All the hadits of Mi‘raj and there are plenty, among them: “When I was made to ascend the sky, I saw/met Idries on the Fourth Sky – لما عرج بي رأيت إدريس في السماء الرابعة [at-Tirmidzi: dan Ibn Hibban – Sahih al-Jami' :5212]


6. “rise – الصعود”

- The Hadits: “Nothing will rise to Allah except the good (sincere and righteous deeds) – ولا يصعد إلى الله إلا الطيب” [Bukhariy: 6993]


7. “elevate - رفع”

- The hadits: Verily, the deeds of the night will be elevated to Allah before the deeds of the day and likewise the deeds of the day will be elevated before the deeds of the night – إن الله يرفع إليه عمل الليل قبل عمل النهار و عمل النهار قبل عمل الليل” [Muslim: 179]


8. The opposite of ascend, that is descend from Him.

- Among his supplications: “O Allah, the One Who descended The Book, moves the clouds… – اللهم منزل الكتاب ومجري السحاب” [Bukhariy: 2804-2861, Muslim:1742]

- His Descend: the Hadits: “Our Lord, The Most Exalted descends every night to the closest sky to the earth, when it is the last third of the night… – ينزل ربنا تبارك وتعالى … كل ليلة إلى السماء الدنيا حين يبقى ثلث الليل الآخر” [Bukhariy: 1094, Muslim:758]


Translated By: Ustadz Abu Mazaaya
Source: Sifatu ‘Uluw al-‘Aliyi al-‘Afuw
Read On 0 comments

AQD018E: al-'Uluw - From the Sacred Texts of al-Quran


Verily, all praises be to Allah, we praise Him, seek His Help and Forgiveness, we seek refuge with Allah from our evil behaviour and bad deeds, whoever Allah has guided none can make him go astray and whoever Allah has made deviated none can guide him. I bear witness that there is no God worthy of worship except Allah, no associate with Him and I testify that Muhammad is indeed His servant and His Messenger.

Amma ba’d - what follows:



"O ye who believe! fear Allah, and (always) say a word directed to the Right: That He may make your conduct whole and sound and forgive you your sins: he that obeys Allah and His Messenger, has already attained the highest Achievement." [al-Ahzab: 33:70-71]

As we have understood, from the teachings of Salafussolih, our pious predecessors, among them al-Qadi AbuYusuf (d: 182H), al-Hafiz Ibn Mandah (d: 395H), Ibn Battah al-‘Ukbariy (d: 387H) and others, at-Tawhied is classified into 3 categories; ar-Rububiyah, al-Uluhiyah and al-Asma’ wa as-Sifat. One of the Attributes (Sifat) of Allah is al-‘Uluw, meaning High, Exalted and Elevated above His creations. This Divine and Sacred Attribute of Allah is in two forms; Since we have understood that He is as He the Most High described Himself: “There is nothing like unto Him – ليس كمثله شيء” (al-Qur’an: asy-Syura: 42:11) with regards to His Divine Attributes or in simple words: Whatever description we use to describe Him, The Exalted, is in reality not the same to the descriptions of His creations except by the meaning of the words literally. His Attributes are Most Perfect and Distinct.


i. ‘Uluw as-Sifat (علو الصفات) ie. His Divine Attributes and

ii. ‘Uluw adz-Dzat (علو الذات) His Supreme Being/Self



We focus now on the other aspect: ‘Uluw adz-Dzat. As we fear for ourselves to fall into transgressions and the evils of heresy, we steadfast to the methodology of Salafussolih, taking our ‘Aqeedah/Beliefs from the very teachings of al-Quran, the Sunnah, both together with understanding and interpretation of the pious predecessor scholars; namely the Companions (Sahabah), their disciples, the Successors (at-Tabi‘un), their Followers (Atba‘ at-Tabi‘ien) and those who follow their path, the path of as-Sunnah, the True, real and Authentic Ahlis Sunnah wal Jama‘ah, preserved by Allah the Almighty until the End of Time.

His Divine Being is elevated above His creations according to the Texts of al-Quran, the Authentic Sunnah of His Messenger and the Concensus/Ijma‘ of the True Scholars, those who inherit the Knowledge of the Messenger, as well as Fitrah; the intrinsic nature inborn in each human soul granted and ordained by Allah.



1. With the wording  “al-‘Uluw” (al-A‘la dan al-‘Aliyy):



Glorify the name of the Guardian-Lord Most High. [al-A‘la:1]




He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them for He is the Most High, the Supreme (in glory). [al-Baqarah:255]


2. With the diction “Up in (above) The Skies”



then He elevated, rose over (istiwa’) towards the sky. [al-Baqarah:29]


3. With the wording “above - فوق”



He is the Irresistible (Supreme), above His servants; and He is the All-Wise, Well-Acquainted with all things. [al-An‘am:18]


4. With the wording “rose over – Istiwa’ His Throne or the Sky



Surely, your Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days and then rose over the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty, disposing the affair of all things…[Yunus:3]



The Most Gracious (Allah) rose over (istwa’) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). [Taha:5]


5. With the wording “ascend – العروج”



The angels and the Spirit/Ruh (Jibriel) ascend to Him in a Day the measure whereof is (as) fifty thousand years. [al-Ma‘arij:4]


6. With the diction “rise – الصعود”


To Him mount up (rise) (all) words of Purity, goodly words: it is He Who exalts each Deed of Righteousness. [Fatir:10]


7. With the word: “elevate -  رفع”


And (remember) when Allah said: "O ‘Isa (Jesus)! I will take you and raise/elevate you to Myself and clear you (of the forged statement that ‘Isa (Jesus) is Allah’s son) of those who disbelieve..." [Al-‘Imran:55]



To Him mount up (rise) (all) words of Purity, goodly words: it is He Who exalts/elevate each Deed of Righteousness. [Fatir:10]


8. With the opposite of ascend, that is descend from Him, a proof that He is up Above.


The revelation of this Book is from Allah, the Exalted in Power, Full of Wisdom. [az-Zumar:1]



Say, (O Muhammad) Ruhul Qudus (the Holy Spirit – Jibriel) has brought it (the revelation – al-Qur’an) down from your Lord with Truth, in order to strengthen those who believe, and as a Guide and Glad Tidings to Muslims. [an-Nahl:102]



Verily this (the Quran) is a Revelation from the Lord of the worlds: Which the trustworthy Ruh (Jibriel) has brought down upon your heart (O Muhammad), that you may be one of the warners, in the plain Arabic language.. [asy-Syu‘ara’:192-195]


Translated By: Ustadz Abu Mazaaya
Source: Sifatu ‘Uluw al-‘Aliyi al-‘Afuw
Read On 0 comments

AQD025: Sifat 'Uluw - Ijma' Ulama'


Dzat Allah yang Maha Agung atau DiriNya, berada Tinggi di atas segala makhluqNya dengan keterangan dan penjelasan nas-nas al-Qur’an, as-Sunnah dan kesepakatan/Ijma‘ ‘ulama’ yang sebenar-benarnya ‘ulama’ yang hidup pada zaman yang dijamin kebaikan dan kebenarannya oleh Rasulullah shallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, yang telah mewarisi ajaran Nabi shallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, disertai dalil daripada Fitrah kurniaan Allah bagi setiap insan.

Ijma‘ (kesepakatan) ‘Ulama’:

1. Imam al-Auza‘ie rahimahullah (wafat: 157H) menyatakan:
“Kami dan at-Tabi‘un, kami semua mengatakan Allah berada di atas ‘ArasyNya…” [1]

2. Imam Ibn Katsier rahimahullah (wafat: 774H) dalam menjelaskan tafsiran ayat ke-3 Surah al-An‘am, berkata:

Firman Allah: {Dan Dia adalah Allah di langit dan juga di bumi yang Mengetahui yang kamu selindungkan dan yang kamu nyatakan lagi Mengetahui apa yang kamu kerjakan} Para Ahli Tafsir berbeza pendapat (dalam mentafsirkan ayat ini) setelah mereka bersepakat menyalahkan pegangan al-Jahmiyah – puak pertama yang menyatakan – “Allah ada di mana-mana – Allah fie kulli makan”[2]

Daripada kata-kata ‘Ulama’ Salafusolih:

1. ‘Abdullah bin Mas‘ud radhiyallahu'anhu , (as-Sahabie) Sahabat Rasulullah shallallahu 'alayhi wasallam berkata:
“إرحم من في الأرض يرحمك من في السماء – Belas ihsanlah kepada yang berada di bumi maka yang berada di langit akan merahmatimu” [3]

2. ‘Abdullah ibn Mubarak rahimahullah [4]:
Imam ‘AbdulLah bin Ahmad meriwayatkan bahawa ‘Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak (wafat: 181H) telah menegaskan: “....Aku bersaksi bahawa Engkau berada di atas Arasy mu, di atas 7 petala langit dan ini berbeza daripada pegangan musuh-musuh Allah, puak yang menyeleweng.” [5]
“Kita mengetahui bahawa Tuhan kita berada di atas 7 petala langit di atas ArasyNya dan kita tidak katakan sebagaimana puak Jahmiyah katakan bahawa Dia ada di sini”, sambil menuding dengan tangannya ke bumi. [6]
“Kita tidak beri‘tiqad seperti I‘tiqadnya golongan Jahmiyah yang mengatakan: Allah ada di bumi, bahkan kita katakan: Dia beristiwa’ di atas ‘ArasyNya.”
“Bagaimana kita mengenali Tuhan kita?” Jawabnya: “Dia di atas langit, beristiwa’ di atas ArasyNya.” [7]

3. Abu Haniefah rahimahullah (80-150H)
 Abu Haniefah [8], pernah ditanya apakah pendapat beliau terhadap orang yang berkata: “Saya tidak tahu samada Allah berada di atas langit atau di bumi.” 
Jawab beliau: “Ia telah kufur, sebab Allah telah menegaskan dalam FirmanNya: {ar-Rahman di atas ‘Arasy Dia beristiwa’} [9] , dan ArasyNya berada di atas 7 petala langit.”
Lalu beliau ditanya lagi: “Bagaimana pula jika ia katakan: Allah di atas ArasyNya tetapi ia tidak tahu ‘Arasy itu ada di langit atau di bumi?” 
Abu Haniefah menjawab: “Ia telah kufur sebab ia telah mendustakan bahawa Allah berada di atas langit dan sesiapa yang menafikan bahawa Dia berada di atas langit, ia telah kufur.” [10]

4. Imam Mālik rahimahullah (93-179H):
Imam Mālik [11] telah menyatakan: “Allah berada di atas langit, manakala IlmuNya ada pada setiap tempat, tiada sesuatupun yang terselindung daripadaNya.” [12]


5. Imam asy-Syāfi‘ie rahimahullah (150-204H):

Al-Imam Adz-Dzahabie dalam kitabnya: “al-‘Uluw” menjelaskan:

Syeikhul Islam Abul Hasan al-Hakkari dan al-Hafiz Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisiy, kedua-duanya meriwayatkan dengan Isnad (rangkaian para perawi) yang sampai kepada Abu Tsaur dan Abu Syu‘aib (murid-murid asy-Syafi‘ie – kedua-duanya meriwayatkan bahawa al-Imam asy-Syafi‘ie [13], Nasir al-Hadiets (pembela Hadis), semoga Allah merahmatinya, telah berkata:
“Pegangan menurut as-Sunnah yang aku sendiri berpegang dengannya dan aku saksikan mereka yang aku sempat ketemui, seperti Sufyan dan Malik; juga berpegang erat dengannya dan selain mereka, adalah persaksian bahawa tiada Tuhan yang berhak disembah melainkan Allah dan Muhammad adalah UtusanNya dan bahawasanya Allah di atas ‘ArasyNya, di atas langit, dan mendekati hamba-hambaNya sesuai KehendakNya dan Dia turun ke Langit Dunia menurut kehendakNya …kemudian beliau menyebutkan perkara-perkara Aqiedah lainnya.” [14]
 
6. Wahab bin Jareer rahimahullah (w: 206H):
Beliau berkata: “al-Jahmiyah adalah Ahli Bid‘ah, mereka beri‘tiqad bahawa Allah tidak berIstiwa’ di atas ‘ArasyNya” [15]

7. Imam Muhammad bin Yusuf rahimahullah [16]:
Beliau menegaskan: “Barangsiapa yang mengatakan Allah tidak berada di atas ArasyNya maka ia Kafir” [17]

8. Ibn Ma‘dan berkata:
Aku telah bertanya kepada Sufyan ats-Tsauriy rahimahullah [18] berkenaan ayat: Dan Dia (IlmuNya) bersama kamu di mana sahaja kamu berada… [19]
Beliau menjawab: “IlmuNya” [20]

9. Imam al-Hafiz al-Lalaka-i rahimahullah (w: 418H):

Beliau telah membuat kesimpulan berikut, setelah beliau menyenaraikan beberapa ayat [21] sebagai bukti kepada Sifat ‘Uluw sebagai salah satu Sifat Allah:
“Ayat-ayat ini dengan terang dan jelas memberi petunjuk dan bukti bahawa Dia berada di atas langit namun IlmuNya meliputi segala tempat di bumi dan di langit. Inilah yang diriwayatkan daripada para Sahabat; antaranya daripada ‘Umar, Ibn Mas‘ud, Ibn ‘Abbas dan Ummu Salamah .


Begitu juga daripada golongan at-Tabi‘un – (murid-murid setia kepada para Sahabat); Rabie‘ah bin ‘Abdir Rahman, Sulayman at-Taymee, Muqatil bin Haiyan dan di kalangan Ahli Fiqh terbilang yang berpegang dengannya adalah Malik bin Anas, Sufyan ats-Tsauriy and Ahmad bin Hambal.”[22]


Ada banyak lagi nukilan dalam kitab-kitab ‘Ulama terdahulu yang diabadikan oleh Allah, namun rasanya apa yang dibentangkan telah memadai untuk kita meyakini Allah berada di atas langit, di atas ArasyNya dan Dia tidak memerlukan Arasy dan tidak diketahui cara “berada di ArasyNya”, Insya’ Allah.


[1] Al-Asma’ wa as-Sifat – karangan al-Imam al-Baihaqiy: no: 865; jil.2,304 – Atsar (riwayat) ini disebutkan oleh al-Hafiz di dalam Fath al-Bari: 13/406 dengan sumbernya daripada kitab al-Baihaqiy ini dan menghukumkan sanadnya baik. Syeikhul Islam juga menyebutkannya dengan sumbernya daripada kitab yang sama dalam al-Hamawiyah: 5/39 dengan menghukumkan sanadnya sahih dan Imam Ibn Qayyim dalam as-Sawa‘iq al-Mursalah: 2/211 dengan sanadnya lalu menyatakan: “para perawinya semuanya adalah para imam tsiqat ”

[2] Tafsier al-Qur’an al-‘Aziem (Tafsier Ibn Katsier): surah al-An‘am ayat 3. Demikian pula ketetapan melalui falsafah yang mengatakan: “Allah Maujoud bi la makan – Allah wujud tak bertempat” yang boleh diertikan: “Allah tiada di mana-mana”, suatu kenyataan menyeleweng dalam permasalahan ‘Aqiedah yang tidak berasaskan kepada al-Qur’an, tidak pula as-Sunnah, malah tiada satu pun daripada kata-kata para Imam, berbeza dengan yang kita dapati dalam tulisan ini.

[3] Syarh Usul I‘tiqad Ahlis Sunnah wal Jama’ah: 3/438 oleh al-Imam al-Lalaka-i (w: 418H) yang merupakan sebuah hadis Sahih daripada ucapan Rasulullah diriwayatkan oleh at-Tabaraniy (daripada riwayat Jarier), dan at-Tabaraniy juga meriwayatkannya, serta al-Hakim daripada ‘Abdullah bin Mas‘ud – Sahih al-Jami‘: 896.

[4] ‘Abdullah bin al-Mubarak bin Wadih al-Hanzali, at-Tamiemiy al-Marwazi, Mawla Bani Hanzalah al-Marwazi, Tabi‘ie tsiqah, Ahli Fiqh terbilang dan seorang mujahid, wafat 181H – as-Siyar: 1299.
[5] “as-Sunnah” oleh Imam ‘AbdulLah bin Ahmad dengan tahqeeq al-Qahtaanie

[6] Ibid.

[7] Al-Arba‘ien fi as-Sifat; Khalq Af‘al al-‘Ibad karangan al-Imam Bukhariy (194-256H)

[8] Abu Haniefah, an-Nu‘man bin Tsabit al-Koufidikenali sebagai pengasas Madzhab Hanafi (80-150H).

[9] Ayat ini dalam Surah Ta-ha: 20:5.

[10] al-Uluw oleh adz- Dzahabee, Syarh al-‘Aqeedah at-Tahawiyyah oleh Ibn Abie al-‘Izz al-Hanafee

[11] Imam Darul Hijrah, Malik bin Anas bin Malik bin Abi ‘Amir al-Asbahi al-Madani, dikenali sebagai pengasas Madzhab Maliki (93-179H)

[12] Al-Albanee rahimahullah dalam analisanya terhadap Mukhtasar (no. 130), menyatakan: ia diriwayatkan oleh ‘Abdullah dalam as-Sunnah (hlm. 5), dan Abu Dawood dalam Masa-il (hlm. 263) dan sanadnya saheeh dan beliau memuatkan sanggahan terhadap putar belit dan tipu daya al- Kawtharee yang mendakwa sanad ini lemah.

[13] Imam Pembela as-Sunnah, Muhammad bin Idries, al-Muttalibi al-Qurasyi, asy-Syafi‘ie dikenali sebagai pengasas Madzhab Syafi‘ie, 150-204H.

[14] Riwayat Adz-Dzahabie (w: 748H) dalam “Mukhtasar al-‘Uluw”: 176 dan al-Imam Ibn al-Qayim dalam “Ijtima‘ al-Juyusy al-Islamiyah”: 94. Sila rujuk juga: Majmu‘ al-Fatawa: 4/181 dan ‘Aun al-Ma‘bud: 13/41 dan 47 juga.

[15] Khalq Af‘al al-‘Ibad karangan al-Imam Bukhariy (194-256H)

[16] bin Ma‘dan, seorang ‘alim yang sezaman dengan ‘Abdullah bin al-Mubarak (w: 181H). Adz-Dzahabiy ada menyebutkan berkenaan (biografi) beliau di dalam as-Siyar: 1372, dan beliau bukan ‘Abdullah bin Yusuf (w: 218H), salah seorang guru Imam al-Bukhariy dan beliau adalah salah seorang perawi yang diterima periwayatannya dalam Sahih al-Bukhariy.

[17] Khalq Af‘al al-‘Ibad: hlm.15 karangan al-Imam Bukhariy (194-256H)

[18] Sufyan bin Sa‘ied bin Masruq bin Habieb… bin Milkan bin Tsaur (97H-161H). Di antara ‘ulama’ yang terbilang dan terunggul zamannya.

[19] Al-Qur’an: al-Hadied: 57: 4

[20] Khalq Af‘al al-‘Ibad oleh al-Imam Bukhariy, Syarh Usul I‘tiqad Ahlis Sunnah wal Jama’ah: 3/445oleh al-Imam al-Lalaka-i (d: 418H) dan diriwayatkan juga oleh ‘Abdullah bin Ahmad in as-Sunnah: 72.

[21] Al-Qur’an: Fatir: 35:10, Al-Qur’an: al-Mulk: 67:16, Al-Qur’an: al-An‘am: 6:18

[22] Syarh Usul I‘tiqad Ahlis Sunnah wal Jama’ah: 3/429-430 karangan al-Imam al-Lalaka-i.
Read On 0 comments

Search IslamIQ.sg

Loading...
Subscribe to us:


Unique Visitors:
Join Our Mailing List

Name:
Email: